If you're not familiar with everything in my previous tutorial, I recommend you to read that first, and then come back here.
When you make a window, you get a handle to the newly-made window. Later on, to close the window, or to do anything else with the window, you'll need the window handle.
A window procedure is a special function, that you make, that takes action, based on the message it receives.
A window message is sent to a window when some sort of event happens (ie close button pressed, time to repaint window, window just got moved, etc.).
A window procedure is started in a separate thread.
What Is A Thread?
To know what a thread is, you first need to know how multi-tasking operating systems work.
In a multi-tasking environment, there are usually a lot of tasks. The tasks take turns in using the processor. First one task runs, then another task runs, then another, ..., and then the first task runs again, then the second task runs, and so on. What a task is defined as is up to the operating system.
A program starts out with only one thread. When it's that program's turn to run, it does the next thing it was going to do, and then comes the next program's turn. A program can ask Windows to start a new thread. Then there are two threads within this process, now.
It's up to the operating system in what order to run the threads, but basically, a thread is a stream of code that waits in line for its turn to use the processor. And when its turn comes, it's executed; when the next thread's turn comes, this thread is put back to the end of the line. Well, details like this are actually up to the operating system, but it's the same idea.
To start a new thread, you need to use the CreateThread() Win32 API function.
Some More Instructions
Note: The bit number always starts from 0. So bit 1, in the binary string "00100010," is "1." Bit 0 is the right-most bit.
CMP - Logical Compare
The CMP instruction does exactly the same thing as the SUB instruction, but it doesn't store the result in the destination operand.
This instruction affects the flags in the following way:
Zero Flag (Bit 6 of EFLAGS) = 1 if result is 0; = 0 otherwise.
Sign Flag (Bit 7 of EFLAGS) = 1 if result negative; = 0 otherwise.
Overflow Flag (Bit 11 of EFLAGS) = 1 if result caused overflow or underflow; = 0 otherwise.
Carry Flag (Bit 0 of EFLAGS) = 1 if result requires a borrow; = 0 otherwise.
(Note: The destination operand is the first operand.)
TEST - Bitwise Compare
The TEST instruction does exactly the same thing as the AND instruction, except it doesn't store the result in the destination operand.
This instruction clears the carry and overflow flags, and sets sign and parity flags according to the result.
Probably the most important thing to remember, about the TEST instruction, is that it sets the zero flag (bit 6 of EFLAGS) if the result is zero, and clears the zero flag if the result is not zero.
Each of these has one operand.
You use these in assembly language, instead of conditional statements, as in other languages.
JZ - Jump If Zero/Equal
If the result was zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
JNZ - Jump If Not Zero/Equal
If the result was not zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
JL - Jump If Less
If the result is less than zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
JNL - Jump If Not Less
If the result is not less than zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
JG - Jump If Greater
If the result is greater than zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
JNG - Jump If Not Greater
If the result is not greater than zero, jump to the code pointed to by operand 1.
AND a, b
If both a and b are non-zero, then the result is non-zero. The result is zero, otherwise.
OR a, b
If either a or b is non-zero, then the result is non-zero. The result is zero, otherwise.
XOR a, b
Looking at a and b, if they're different (one is zero and one's not, or one's not zero and one's zero) then the result is non-zero. The result is zero, otherwise.
If a is zero, the result is non-zero. The result is zero, otherwise.
Logical Operations Within Bitwise Operations
The AND, OR, XOR, and NOT instructions perform bitwise operations. A bitwise operation operates on each bit of one value with the corresponding bit in the other value.
For example, 01000001 OR 00010000 = 0 or 0, 1 or 0, 0 or 0, 0 or 1, 0 or 0, 0 or 0, 0 or 0, 1 or 0, which forms the output 01010001.
If you NOT 01000001, you'll get 10111110 .
Another example, 00101110 XOR 01001000 would be 0 xor 0 = 0, 0 xor 1 = 1, 1 xor 0 = 1, 0 xor 0 = 0, 1 xor 1 = 0, 1 xor 0 = 1, 1 xor 0 = 1, 0 xor 0 = 0 what would form the result binary string 01100110 .
If we wanted to test 01000001 to see if bit 2 is set, we would either use the TEST or AND instruction. The TEST instruction does the same thing as the AND instruction, but it doesn't store the result.
Testing For Bit 2:
01000001 AND 00000100 = 00000000
The result will be 0, so the zero flag would be set. We can then use the JZ or JNZ instructions to act accordingly upon the case.
Simple Window - The Idea
The idea, here, is to make a simple window, titled "Simple Window Example."
To do that, we'll need to make a new window class, which we'll call "SimpleWindowClass."
Let's get to the code, now.
Simple Window - The Code
;; Define the externs for the functions that we'll use in this program. extern GetModuleHandleA extern GetCommandLineA extern ExitProcess extern MessageBoxA extern LoadIconA extern LoadCursorA extern RegisterClassExA extern CreateWindowExA extern ShowWindow extern UpdateWindow extern GetMessageA extern TranslateMessage extern DispatchMessageA extern PostQuitMessage extern DefWindowProcA ;; Import the Win32 API functions. import GetModuleHandleA kernel32.dll import GetCommandLineA kernel32.dll import ExitProcess kernel32.dll import MessageBoxA user32.dll import LoadIconA user32.dll import LoadCursorA user32.dll import RegisterClassExA user32.dll import CreateWindowExA user32.dll import ShowWindow user32.dll import UpdateWindow user32.dll import GetMessageA user32.dll import TranslateMessage user32.dll import DispatchMessageA user32.dll import PostQuitMessage user32.dll import DefWindowProcA user32.dll ;; Tell NASM that we're about to type things for the code section. section .text use32 ;; We specify that here is the place where the program should start ;; executing. ..start: ;; We pass 0 as a parameter. push dword 0 ;; Then we call the GetModuleHandle() function. call [GetModuleHandleA] ;; And we store the result (which is in EAX) in the hInstance global variable. mov dword [hInstance], eax ;; Then we call the function to get the command line for our program. call [GetCommandLineA] ;; And we store the result in the CommandLine global variable. mov dword [CommandLine], eax ;; Now we call our WindowMain() function. ;; The parameters to pass are: hInstance, 0, CommandLine, SW_SHOWDEFAULT ;; SW_<something> is a Windows constant for how to show a window. ;; If we look into windows.h or windows.inc, we'll find that ;; SW_SHOWDEFAULT is defined as 10, so we'll pass that as the last argument. push dword 10 ;; Now the CommandLine variable. push dword [CommandLine] ;; The brackets tell NASM to use a memory access, and not a memory address. ;; And a NULL (NULL is equal to 0). push dword 0 ;; Then the hInstance variable. push dword [hInstance] ;; Once again, we don't want the pointer to hInstance, we want the actual value. ;; And we make a call to WindowMain(). call WindowMain ;; Then we exit the program, returning EAX, which is what WindowMain() will return. push eax call [ExitProcess] ;; This is now the WindowMain() function. ;; We will want to reserve enough stack space for a WNDCLASSEX structure so ;; we can make a class for our window, a MSG structure so we can receive messages ;; from our window when some event happens, and an HWND, which is just a ;; double-word that's used for storing the handle to our window. WindowMain: ;; WNDCLASSEX is 48 bytes in size. Let's use [ebp-48] for the start of our ;; window class structure. MSG is 28 bytes in size; let's use [ebp-48-24] ;; = [ebp-72] for that. Then there's HWND, which is 4 bytes in size. ;; We'll use [ebp-76] to store that value. ;; So we'll have to reserve 76 bytes on the stack. enter 76, 0 ;; We need to fill out the WNDCLASSEX structure, now. lea ebx, [ebp-48] ;; We load EBX with the address of our WNDCLASSEX structure. ;; The structure of WNDCLASSEX can be found at this page: ;; http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms633577(v=vs.85).aspx mov dword [ebx+00], 48 ;; Offset 00 is the size of the structure. mov dword [ebx+04], 3 ;; Offset 04 is the style for the window. 3 is equal to CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW mov dword [ebx+08], WindowProcedure ;; Offset 08 is the address of our window procedure. mov dword [ebx+12], 0 ;; I'm not sure what offset 12 and offset 16 are for. mov dword [ebx+16], 0 ;; But I do know that they're supposed to be NULL, at least for now. mov eax, dword [ebp+8] ;; We load the hInstance value. mov dword [ebx+20], eax ;; Offset 20 is the hInstance value. mov dword [ebx+32], 5 + 1 ;; Offset 32 is the handle to the background brush. We set that to COLOR_WINDOW + 1. mov dword [ebx+36], 0 ;; Offset 36 is the menu name, what we set to NULL, because we don't have a menu. mov dword [ebx+40], ClassName ;; Offset 40 is the class name for our window class. ;; Note that when we're trying to pass a string, we pass the memory address of the string, and the ;; function to which we pass that address takes care of the rest. ;; LoadIcon(0, IDI_APPLICATION) where IDI_APPLICATION is equal to 32512. push dword 32512 push dword 0 call [LoadIconA] ;; All Win32 API functions preserve the EBP, EBX, ESI, and EDI registers, so it's ;; okay if we use EBX to store the address of the WNDCLASSEX structure, for now. mov dword [ebx+24], eax ;; Offset 24 is the handle to the icon for our window. mov dword [ebx+44], eax ;; Offset 44 is the handle to the small icon for our window. ;; LoadCursor(0, IDC_ARROW) where IDC_ARROW is equal to 32512. push dword 32512 push dword 0 call [LoadCursorA] mov dword [ebx+28], eax ;; Offset 28 is the handle to the cursor for our window. ;; Now we register our window class with Windows, so that we can use the class name ;; for our window, when we make that. ;; Since EBX already has the address of our WNDCLASSEX structure, we can just pussh ;; EBX, so we don't have to reload the address of that structure. push ebx call [RegisterClassExA] ;; CreateWindowEx(0, ClassName, window title, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, x, y, width, height, handle to parent window, handle to menu, hInstance, NULL); push dword 0 push dword [ebp+8] push dword 0 push dword 0 push dword 400 ;; 400 pixels high. push dword 500 ;; 500 pixels wide. push dword 0x80000000 ;; CW_USEDEFAULT push dword 0x80000000 ;; CW_USEDEFAULT push dword 0x00 | 0xC00000 | 0x80000 | 0x40000 | 0x20000 | 0x10000 ;; WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW ;; WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW = WS_OVERLAPPED | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | WS_THICKFRAME | WS_MINIMIZEBOX | WS_MAXIMIZEBOX push dword ApplicationName push dword ClassName push dword 0 call [CreateWindowExA] ;; Store the result (which should be a handle to our window) in [ebp-76]. mov dword [ebp-76], eax ;; Check if EAX is zero. If so, jump to the error-handling routine. sub eax, 0 ;; The only difference between SUB and CMP is that CMP doesn't store the result in the first operand. ;; Here we're subtracting 0 from EAX, which won't change EAX, so it doesn't matter if we use SUB. jz .new_window_failed ;; Now we need to show the window and update the window. ;; ShowWindow([ebp-76], [ebp+20]) push dword [ebp+20] push dword [ebp-76] call [ShowWindow] ;; UpdateWindow([ebp-76]) push dword [ebp-76] call [UpdateWindow] .MessageLoop: ;; GetMessage(the MSG structure, 0, 0, 0) push dword 0 push dword 0 push dword 0 lea ebx, [ebp-72] push ebx call [GetMessageA] ;; If GetMessage() returns 0, it's time to exit. cmp eax, 0 jz .MessageLoopExit ;; TranslateMessage(the MSG) lea ebx, [ebp-72] push ebx call [TranslateMessage] ;; DispatchMessage(the MSG) lea ebx, [ebp-72] push ebx call [DispatchMessageA] ;; And start the loop over again. jmp .MessageLoop .MessageLoopExit: ;; We'll need to jump over the error-handling routing, so we can continue. jmp .finish .new_window_failed: ;; Display a message box with the error message. push dword 0 push dword 0 push dword err_msg push dword 0 call [MessageBoxA] ;; Exit, returning 1. mov eax, 1 leave ret 16 .finish: ;; We return the MSG.wParam value. lea ebx, [ebp-72] mov eax, dword [ebx+08] ;; It's time to leave. leave ;; And, since WindowMain() has 4 arguments, we free 4 * 4 = 16 bytes from ;; the stack, after we return. ret 16 ;; We also need a procedure to handle the events that our window sends us. ;; We call that procedure WindowProcedure(). ;; It also has to take 4 arguments, which are as follows: ;; hWnd The handle to the window that sent us that event. ;; This would be the handle to the window that uses ;; our window class. ;; uMsg This is the message that the window sent us. It ;; describes the event that has happened. ;; wParam This is a parameter that goes along with the ;; event message. ;; lParam This is an additional parameter for the message. ;; If we process the message, we have to return 0. ;; Otherwise, we have to return whatever the DefWindowProc() function ;; returns. DefWindowProc() is kind of like the "default window procedure" ;; function. It takes the default action, based on the message. ;; For now, we only care about the WM_DESTROY message, which tells us ;; that the window has been closed. If we don't take care of the ;; WM_DESTROY message, who knows what will happen. ;; Later on, of course, we can expand our window to process other ;; messages too. WindowProcedure: ;; We don't really need any local variables, for now, besides the function arguments. enter 0, 0 ;; We need to retrieve the uMsg value. mov eax, dword [ebp+12] ;; We get the value of the second argument. ;; Now here comes the new instruction. We need to compare the value we just ;; retrieved to WM_DESTROY to see if the message is a WM_DESTROY message. ;; If so, we'll jump to the .window_destroy label. cmp eax, 2 ;; Compare EAX to WM_DESTROY, which is equal to 2. jz .window_destroy ;; If it's equal to what we compared it to, jump to ;; the .window_destroy label. ;; If the processor doesn't jump to the .window_destroy label, it means that ;; the result of the comparison is not equal. In that case, the message ;; must be something else. ;; In cases like this we can either take care of the message right now, or ;; we can jump to another location in the code that would take care of the ;; message. ;; We'll just jump to the window_default label. jmp .window_default ;; We need to define the .window_destroy label, now. .window_destroy: ;; If uMsg is equal to WM_DESTROY (2), then the processor will execute this ;; code next. ;; We pass 0 as an argument to the PostQuitMessage() function, to tell it ;; to pass 0 as the value of wParam for the next message. At that point, ;; GetMessage() will return 0, and the message loop will terminate. push dword 0 ;; Now we call the PostQuitMessage() function. call [PostQuitMessage] ;; When we're done doing what we need to upon the WM_DESTROY condition, ;; we need to jump over to the end of this area, or else we'd end up ;; in the .window_default code, which won't be very good. jmp .window_finish ;; And we define the .window_default label. .window_default: ;; Right now we don't care about what uMsg is; we just use the default ;; window procedure. ;; In order for use to call the DefWindowProc() function, we need to ;; pass the arguments to it. ;; It's arguments are the same as WindowProcedure()'s arguments. ;; We push the arguments to the stack, in backwards order. push dword [ebp+20] push dword [ebp+16] push dword [ebp+12] push dword [ebp+08] ;; And we call the DefWindowProc() function. call [DefWindowProcA] ;; At this point, we need to return. The return value must ;; be equal to whatever DefWindowProc() returned, so we ;; can't change EAX. ;; But we need to leave before we return. leave ;; Then, we can return. WindowProcedure() has 4 arguments, 4 bytes each, ;; so we free 4 * 4 = 16 bytes from the stack, after returning. ret 16 ;; Any code after the RET instruction will not be executed. ;; But we'll put code there anyway, just for consistency. jmp .window_finish ;; This is where the we want to jump to after doing everything we need to. .window_finish: ;; Unless we use the DefWindowProc() function, we need to return 0. xor eax, eax ;; XOR EAX, EAX is a way to clear EAX. ;; Same applies for any other register. ;; Then we need to leave. leave ;; And, as said earlier, we free 16 bytes, after returning. ret 16 ;; We're about to define variables for the data section. section .data ;; We define the class name for our window class. ClassName db "SimpleWindowClass", 0 ;; Then we define the application name, for our window's title. ApplicationName db "Simple Window Example", 0 ;; The error message. err_msg db "An error occurred while making the new window. ", 0 ;; We're about to define variables for the bss section. section .bss ;; And we reserve a double-word for hInstance and a double-word for CommandLine. hInstance resd 1 CommandLine resd 1
Simple Window - The Output
Here's what the output should look like:
Intro To Win32 Assembly, Using NASM
Local Variables and Functions
Edited by RhetoricalRuvim, 20 August 2011 - 06:54 PM.